Under the Soil!

House Cartoon

Layers of the Earth

Cartoon Earth Layer

volcano cartoon

paper and pencil


Question Mark

Did you know that the Earth has four different layers?

Before we learn about the different layers, let us learn about elements!

Elements - Elements make up everything on the Earth and in the Solar System. Elements make up you and everybody and all the plants. Even soil is made up of elements. Elements have names like Oxygen, Carbon, and Hydrogen. There are over 100 elements!

Like everything else, the four layers of the Earth are made up of different elements.


Now let us look at the four different layers of the Earth and the elements that make them up!!!

Crust - The crust is the part of the Earth that we stand on everyday. The crust is the only part of the Earth that we can touch with our hands and see with our eyes everyday. Remember the sand, clay, and humus that we had in class? Those different kinds of soils are part of the crust! The crust is not very hot since it is on top. The temperature of the crust is different all over the world.

The elements that make up the CRUST are:

Calcium, Sodium, Aluminum

Mantle - The mantle is under the crust. The mantle is made up of really hot rock that is melted, called molten lava. The red flowing lava that comes out of a volcano is part of the mantle. The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth. The mantle has a temperature from 1600 degrees Fahreheit to 4000 degrees Fahrenheit! That's very hot!

The elements that make up the MANTLE are:

Iron, Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Oxygen

Outer Core - The outer core is so hot that the metal elements are molten! Molten means that something is liquid from melting. The outer core is ever hotter than the mantle!! The outer core has temperatures starting from 4000 degrees Fahrenheit to 9000 degrees Fahrenheit!

The elements that make up the OUTER CORE are:

Iron, Nickel

Inner Core - All the other layers press down on the inner core. The pressure from all the other layers make the inner core solid even though this layer is the hottest layer. The temperature of the inner core reaches up to 9000 degrees Fahrenheit!

The element that make up the INNER CORE is:



Good job! That was a lot to read! What did you learn that you did not know before?


Now that you have read all those facts about the Earth, let's look at a diagram of the layers of the Earth!

(A diagram is a picture that shows information.)
Do you see on the picture some of the facts that you read?
Layers of the Earth

Questions or Comment? Please email Lily Ma